Rational Choice and Collective Action

in an Andean Community


A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment

of the requirements for the degree of


Doctor of Philosophy

Program: Anthropology

by Steven John Froemming

University of Washington

1999





Table of Contents

Items marked link to excerpts; subsections marked are included.

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Part I: Ccachín: The People and the Place

Introduction
Choosing a Field Site
Overview of the Community
. . . .
Location
. . . . Village Profile
. . . . Research and Tourist Contacts
Research Objectives and Methodology
Overview of the Thesis
. . . . Objectives of Part I
. . . . Preview of Parts II-V

Chapter I: Community History and Cultural Identity

Introduction
History of the Region
. . . . Ñawpa Timpu: The Age of the Machula
. . . . . . . . Oral Traditions
. . . . . . . . Archeological and Ethnohistorical Evidence
. . . . Time of the Inca:
Antisuyo and Paytiti Tales
. . . . Colonial and Republican Era
. . . . . . . . Haciendas to Agrarian Reform
. . . . . . . . Anexo to Comunidad Campesina
Cultural Identity

. . . . Ethnicity and Class

. . . . Identity, Status, and Stratification in Lares

. . . . . . . . Relations Between Villagers in Ccachín and Lares

. . . . . . . . Authenticity

Chapter 2: Spatial Organization and Production Cycle

Introduction
Geography and Climate
Settlement Pattern
. . . . Population Centers
. . . . Institutional Change
Land Use
. . . . Pattern of Agricultural Intensification
. . . . Production Zones
. . . . . . . . Background
. . . . . . . . Production Zones in Ccachín
. . . . . . . . . . . . Cloud Forest Gardens
. . . . . . . . . . . . Autochthonous Woodlands
. . . . . . . . . . . . Eucalyptus and Pine Plantations
. . . . . . . . . . . . Cornfields
. . . . . . . . . . . . Communally-Regulated Fallow for Early Tuber Planting
. . . . . . . . . . . . Enclosed Gardens in the Settlements
. . . . . . . . . . . . Communally-Regulated Fallow for Main Potato Planting
. . . . . . . . . . . . Uncultivated Natural Highland Pastures
. . . . . . . . . . . . Extraterritorial Cattle Pastures
. . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous Resources
Regional Exchange Networks
. . . . Direct Access to Other Ecological Floors
. . . . Home-Based and Itinerant Trade
. . . . Labor Migration and Emigration
Summary and Conclusion
. . . . Methodological Problems
. . . . Communal Regulation of Sectoral Fallow

. . . . Resource Use and Tragedy of the Commons Effects

Chapter 3: The Web of Expectations

Introduction
Playing Roles
. . . . Taking Pictures
. . . . Interpreter of the Outside World
. . . . Sponsorship of Community Events
. . . . Message Carrier
. . . . Giving Gifts and Lending Money

. . . . . . . . Gift Exchange

. . . . . . . . Money-Lending

. . . . . . . . Trading

. . . . Place in the Status Hierarchy
Ritual Co-Parenthood
. . . . Compadrazgo Rituals
. . . . . . . .
Unuchakuy
. . . . . . . . First-Haircutting
. . . . . . . . Baptism
. . . . . . . . Communion
. . . . . . . . Marriage
. . . . Compadrazgo Responsibilities
. . . . Explanation of the Practice
. . . . . . . . General Features
. . . . . . . . Benefits
Downplaying Suspicions
. . . . Fear of Strangers
. . . . Gold Seekers
. . . . Dispelling Fears About Drugs
Conclusion

Part II: Explanation, Rationality, and "Lo Andino"

Introduction
Methodological Individualism
Beliefs and Desires
Human Action
. . . . Rational Choice Theory
. . . . Alternative Conceptions of Rationality
Explanation in Andean Research
Overview of the Chapters
Conclusion

Chapter 4: Bounded Rationality and Ethnomedical Decision Making

Introduction
Llulla Hak'achu: An Andean Flicker's Tale
. . . . Galactogogues
. . . . Likeness and Likelihood
. . . . . . . . Metaphorical Associations
. . . . . . . . Practical Effects
Hot-Cold Classification in Disease Treatment
. . . . Humoral Theory in the Andes
. . . . Examples from Ccachín
. . . . . . . . Tetanus and Treating Wounds
. . . . . . . . Methodological Issues
. . . . The Rationality of Humoral Beliefs
. . . . . . . . Does Hot-Cold Theory Work?
. . . . . . . . . . . . Natural Causes
. . . . . . . . . . . . Psychological and Social Benefits
. . . . . . . . Does Humoral Theory Work in the Right Way?
. . . . . . . . . . . . Prescription and Validation
Conclusion
. . . . Choice of Treatment Options
. . . . Rationality of Ethnomedical Beliefs
. . . . Magical Thinking

Chapter 5: Seasonal Dispositions in Theft and Thatch

Introduction
Theft
. . . . Theft as an Institution
. . . . The Seasonality of Theft
. . . . Theft Prevention
. . . . Reasons for Theft
. . . . . . . . Economic Motives
. . . . . . . . Psychological Motives
. . . . . . . . Cultural Contradictions
From Theft to Thatch
. . . . A House Fire

. . . . House Rethatching

. . . . Theft and Sorcery

Conclusion
. . . . Instrumental and Expressive Action
. . . . Implicit Intentions
. . . . Further Questions

Chapter 6: The Suñay Puzzle: Explaining Gifts to Non-Kin

Introduction
Description of the Practice
. . . . Suñay in Ccachín
. . . . Features of Suñay
Explaining Suñay
. . . .
Redistributive Benefits
. . . . Unintended Consequences
. . . . Group-Selection
. . . . Origin and Spread of the Practice
. . . . Functional Equivalents
. . . . . . . . Herd Dynamics
. . . . . . . . Obtaining Breeding Stock
. . . . Variation in Suñay Practices
Alcohol, Religion, and Altruism
. . . . Ritual Drinking
. . . . . . . . Generosity and Intoxication
. . . . . . . . Norms of Drinking
. . . . Suñay and Religion
. . . . The Role of Strangers
Discussion and Conclusions
. . . . Explaining Complex Rites
. . . . Grounding Norms
. . . . Social Exchange
. . . . Reputation and Prestige

Part III: The Comunidad Campesina: Structural Context of Action

Chapter 7: Cargos and Cost-Sharing

Introduction
The Civil-Religious Hierarchy

. . . . The Four Tiers of the
Varayoq System
. . . . Responsibilities of the
Varayoq
. . . . . . . . Symbols of Authority
. . . . . . . . Role in Celebration, Communication, and Control
. . . . . . . . . . . . Ceremonial Duties
. . . . . . . . . . . . Agropastoral Duties
. . . . . . . . . . . . Marshals
. . . . . . . . . . . . Town Criers
. . . . Passage Through the Hierarchy
. . . . Selection and Rotation of the
Varayoq
. . . . Swearing in Ceremony for the Varayoq
. . . . Residencia: Annual Inspection of Households
. . . . Religious
Cargos
. . . . . . . . Carguyoq (Cargo-Holders)
. . . . . . . .
Mayordomos (Religious Stewards)
Cargos and Collective Action
. . . . . . . . Competition and Conscription

. . . . . . . . Bases of Cooperation

Chapter 8: Communal Organization and Management

Introduction
Overview of Community Organizations
. . . . General Assembly
. . . . Elected Officials
. . . . . . . . Administrative Council
. . . . . . . . . . . . Elections
. . . . . . . . . . . . Removal and Replacement
. . . . . . . . Municipal Council
. . . . . . . . Lieutenant Governor
. . . . . . . . Judges
. . . . . . . . Committees and Community Groups
. . . . . . . . . . . . Agricultural Committee
. . . . . . . . . . . . Cattle Committee
. . . . . . . . . . . . Mother's Club
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Theft of Clothing at the Mother's Club
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Role of Women in Community Leadership
. . . . . . . . . . . . Human Rights Committee
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Military Emergency Zone
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Formation of the Human Rights Committee
. . . . . . . . . . . . Anniversary Committee

. . . . . . . . . . . . Civic and Cultural Associations

Chapter 9: Rule-Enforcement Mechanisms

Introduction
Control and Enforcement Mechanisms
. . . . Membership
. . . . Probation and Loss of Membership
. . . . Fines

. . . . . . . . Fines for Shirking Obligations

. . . . . . . . Fines for Setting Fires

. . . . . . . . Fines for Animal Damage

. . . . Pawns for Labor Owed
. . . . Inventory to Pass On Responsibilities
. . . . Denouncements
. . . . Audit of Records

Chapter 10: Taxation and Fund-Raising

Introduction
Donations and Collaborations
. . . . Contributions by Community Members
. . . . Donations by Tourists
. . . . Collaboration in Production of a Film
. . . . Contribution from a Sister Parish
. . . . Collaboration by Researchers
Kermesses
Household Assessments
Support from Outside Institutions
. . . . Government Assistance and Services
. . . . . . . . Education and Health
. . . . . . . . Infrastructural and Technological Improvements
. . . . Nongovernmental Development Aid
. . . . . . . .
FAO-HOLANDA Reforestation Project
. . . . . . . .
Proyecto Lares-Amparaes/Tambo
. . . . . . . . Caritas and Arariwa
. . . . . . . . PRAMPECO-Alemán
. . . . . . . . Other Development Efforts

Part IV: Spheres of Collective Action

Chapter 11: Phayna: Participation in Communal Work Projects

Introduction
Organization of
Phayna
. . . . Community Projects
. . . . Role Division in Communal Labor
. . . .
Chuta: Division of Responsibilities by Sections
. . . . . . . . Dividing Space -- Building Fences
. . . . . . . . Dividing Time -- Reroofing the Church
. . . . Labor Monitoring
Household Labor Investment in
Phayna
Extent of Phayna Participation
Case Studies
. . . . Construction of Two Roads

. . . . . . . .
Phayna for the Tractor
. . . . . . . .
Phayna for the New Road
. . . . Construction of the High School
Participation and Nonparticipation in Communal Projects
. . . . Optimal Levels of Cooperation
. . . . Factors Influencing
Phayna Participation

Chapter 12: Deslinde: Marking Territorial Boundaries

Introduction
Disputed Borders,
Deslinde 1990
Ritual and Expressive Aspects of
Deslinde
. . . . Place in Annual Calendar
. . . . Participants
. . . . Roll Call of Participants
. . . . Use of Speech, Text, and Key Symbols
Explanation of the Practice
Territorial Defense
Defining Social Boundaries
. . . . Gender Identity
. . . . Religious Identity
. . . . Ethnic Identity
. . . . Intended and Unintended Meanings

Chapter 13: Self-Help, Communal Values, and Social Change

Introduction
Communalism as a Value, the Value of Communalism

Organizing Households in Intermediate-Sized Groups
Self-Help and Community Development
. . . . Unequal Exchange
. . . . Differentiation
. . . . Motivational Change

Chapter 14: Social Security and Mutual Aid

Introduction
Responding to Adversity
. . . . Orphaned and Unacknowledged Children
. . . . . . . . Case 1: A Motherless Child
. . . . . . . . Case 2: Disputed Paternity
. . . . . . . . Case 3: Maternal Rejection
. . . . Liability for Injuries

. . . . . . . . Case 4: Dog Attack

. . . . . . . . Case 5: A Boy Trampled by a Horse

. . . . . . . . Case 6: A
Phayna Injury
. . . . Emergency Aid
. . . . Case 7: Herds Destroyed by a Grassfire
. . . . Case 8:
Phayna to Rebuild a House
Discussion of Cases
. . . . Liability and Litigation
. . . . Insurance and Safety Nets

Summary and Conclusion

Introduction
Rational Choice

Collective Action

Ethnography

Conclusion

Epilogue

Introduction
Notable Changes
. . . . Infrastructural and Technical Change
. . . . Organizational and Social Change
Conclusion

Glossary

List of References

Appendix 1: A Note on Orthography and Language

Appendix 2: Regional and National Organizations

Appendix 3: Scientific Names

Appendix 4: The Ceremonial Calendar in Ccachín

Appendix 5: Variation in Exchange Rate and Consumer Price Index