Basque Culture and Society:

An Online Reader

This page brings a variety of articles on Basque society and culture that are currently available in English on the Internet. A separate list of articles available in Spanish, complete bibliographic information for the articles, and other useful websites on the Basque Country can be accessed by clicking the links below.

Articles in Spanish Bibliographic Information on the Articles Other Websites on the Basques

Agriculture, Pastoralism, Fishing, Ecology Customs, Festivals, and Rituals Language and Literature
Archeology and Prehistoric Peoples Economics Politics and Social Change
Art, Architecture, Crafts, and Music Ethnicity and Nationalism Religion
Basque Diaspora General Overview
Urban Areas

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Agriculture, Pastoralism, Fishing, and Ecology

Fisheries Policy and the Cofradías in the Basque Country: The Case of Albacore and Anchovy by Kepa Astorkiza, Ikerne del Valle, and Inmaculada Astorkiza (1998)


The Environmental Role of Traditional Farming Systems in the Basque Country by Roberto Ruiz et. al. (1998)

Archeology and Prehistoric Peoples
First Farmers of the Basque Country: Some Archaeobotanical Data by Lydia Zapata (2002)

Stone Octagons in Urnieta by Luix Mari Zaldua Etxabe (1996)

Art, Architecture, Crafts, and Music
Critical Remarks on Rural Architecture and Town Planning in The Basque Country: The Case of Navarre, 1964-1994 by Andoni Alonso, Inaki Arzoz, and Nicanor Ursua (1996)

Kafe Antzokia: The Global Meets the Local in Basque Cultural Politics by Jacqueline Urla (2003)

Oteiza's Selected Writings by Jorge de Oteiza (2003)

What is the Txistu? by Author Unknown (n.d.)

Basque Diaspora
A General Introduction to the Development of the Basque Diaspora by Gloria Pilar Totoricagüena (2001)

Andrak: Women by Gloria Totoricagüena Egurrola (2002)

Basques Around the World: Generic Inmigrants or Diaspora? by Gloria Pilar Totoricagüena (2000)

Basque Ranching Culture Thrives by Mike Laughlin (2006)

Carving Out History: The Basque Aspens by Joxe Mallea-Olaetxe (2001)

Church of the Good Shepherd, Boise, Idaho, USA by Gloria Pilar Totoricagüena (2002)

Ethnic Industries for Migrants Basque Sheepherding in the American West by Gloria Pilar Totoricagüena (2003)

Ethnicity in Festival Landscapes: An Analysis of the Landscape of Jaialdi '95 as a Spatial Expression of Basque Ethnicity by Michael S. Yatsko (1997)

Inaugural Address for the Third World Congress of Basque Collectivities by Gloria Pilar Totoricagüena (2003)

Interstitial Culture, Virtual Ethnicity, and Hyphenated Basque Identity in the New Millennium by William A. Douglass (2000)

Speaking Through the Aspens: Basque Tree Carvings in California and Nevada by Joxe Mallea-Olaetxe (2000)

The Cosmopolitan Basque: Euzko-Etxea of New York by Gloria Pilar Totoricagüena (2003)

Translating the Culture by Linda White and Thomas McClanahan (2005)

Wine Is Not Alcohol: Patterns of Socialization and Wine and Alcohol Consumption among Children and Youngsters in the Basque Diaspora by F. Xavier Medina (2001)

Customs, Festivals, and Rituals
History, Tradition, and Memory among the Basques by J. P. Linstroth (2002)

San Sebastián on Six Meals a Day by Mike Steinberger (2007)

Blooming Together or Wilting Alone? Network Externalities and the Mondragon and La Lega Cooperative Networks by Stephen C. Smith (2001)

Mondragón's Answers to Utopia's Problems by Kenneth R. Hoover (1992)

Regionalism and Revenue - The Moderate Basque Nationalist Party, The PNV, and Politico-Economic Power in The Basque Country of Spain, 1980-1998 by Ilkka Nordberg (2005)

The Economic Costs of Conflict: A Case Study of the Basque Country by Alberto Abadie and Javier Gardeazabal (2002)

The Evolution of Management in the Mondragon Cooperatives by Christina A. Clamp

The Mondragon System: Cooperation at Work by the Institute for Local Self-Reliance (1992)

Ethnicity and Nationalism

A Social Anthropologist's View of Basque Society by Sandra Ott (1998)

Competing National Ideologies, Cyclical Responses: The Mobilisation of the Irish, Basque and Croat National Movements to Rebellion Against the State by Peter Anthony Ercegovac (1999)

Daddy, Let's Talk by Joseba Zulaika and Garazi Zulaika (1998)

Feeding Nationalism (I/II)  by Jeremy MacClancy (2007)


Domino Effect or Internal Developments? The Influences of International Events and Political Ideologies on Catalan and Basque Nationalism by Daniele Conversi (1993)

The Creation of the Basque Identity through Cultural Symbols in Modern Times by Javier Díaz Noci (1999)

The Ongoing Conflict in Spain: Basque Nationalism by Joe J. Grech

Sabino's Sin: Racism and the Founding of Basque Nationalism by William A. Douglass

Sources of Discontent: An Examination of Intra-Group Divisions among the Basques in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries by Robin E. Taylor (2002)

The Basque Nationalist Movement by Meredith Weiss (2002)

The Smooth Transition: Spain's 1978 Constitution and the Nationalities Question by Daniele Conversi (2002)

General Overview
Frequently Asked Questions about the Basques by EuroSare

Symbols of a People: Zazpiak Bat, the Fueros, the Ikurrina, and the Lauburu by Gorka Aulestia (1990)

Language and Literature

A Brief Grammar of Euskara, the Basque Language by Itziar Laka (2000)

An Essay in European Ethnomathematics: The Social and Cultural Bases of the Vara de Burgos and its Relation to the Basque Septuagesimal Systemby Roslyn M. Frank (1999)

Bilingual Education in the Basque Country: Achievements and Challenges after Four Decades of Acquisition Planning by Estibaliz Amorrortu (2002)

Basque and the Regional Languages Question in France by Tim Pooley

Basque from a Typological, Dialectological and Diachronic Point of View by Georges Rebuschi (2004)

Basque: Prehistory and Connections with Other Languages by Larry Trask (1996)

Basque Proverbs / Esaera Zaharrak edited by Jon Aske (1994)

Basque, Spanish, and English: Three Languages in Contact in the Basque Educational System by David Lasagabaster (1997)

Basque: The Basque Language in Education in Spain by Nick Gardner (2000)

Bilingualism, Immersion Programmes and Language Learning in the Basque Country by David Lasagabaster (2001)

FAQs About Basque and the Basques by Larry Trask (1996)

Five Different Statuses for the Basque Language and Linguistic Rights by Kontseilua, the Council of Social Organizations in Favour of Basque (2003)

Gods, Bears, Stones, and Stars [Features the Research of Roslyn Frank] by Suzan Erem (2000)

Language Planning and Linguistic Attitudes in the Basque Case by Estibaliz Amorrortu Gómez (2002)

Local Television Stations, Basque and Minority Language Normalization by Edorta Arana, Patxi Azpillaga, and Beatriz Narbaiza (2003)

Orality and Basque Nationalism: Dancing with the Devil or Waltzing into the Future? by Linda White (2001)

Overview of Basque Locational Cases: Old Descriptions, New Approaches by Iraide Ibarretxe-Antuñano (2001)

Pragmatic Functions of Code-Switching among Basque-Spanish Bilinguals by Inma Muñoa Barredo (1997)

Shifting Identities: The Metaphorics of Nature-Culture Dualism in Western and Basque Models of Self by Roslyn M. Frank (2003)

Sociolinguistic Studies Carried out by the Deputy Ministry for Language Policy of the Basque Government by Miren Mateo and Xabier Aizpurua (2002)

The Age and Context of Acquisition of Euskera and Castilian: A Matter of the Bilingual Education and Politics of the Basque Language by Nekane Balluerka et. al. (1996)

The Conceptual Structure of Basque Buru "Head" by Iraide Ibarretxe-Antuñano (2002)

The Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation of Minority Language Policies: Case Studies on Wales, Ireland and the Basque Country by François Grin and François Vaillancourt (1999)

The Role of Instrumental and Integrative Attitudes in a Multilingual Context by David Lasagabaster (2002)

The Use of Politeness Markers in the Requests of Some Basque Children by Julia Barnes (2002)

Turning Knowledge of Basque into Use: Normalisation Plans for Schools by Jasone Aldekoa and Nicholas Gardner (2002)

What's Cognitive Linguistics? A New Framework for the Study of Basque by Iraide Ibarretxe-Antuñano (2002)

Politics and Social Change

A Geography of Basque Political Violence by Jan Mansvelt Beck (1998)

Acts of Peace and War by Joseba Zulaika (2000)

"Back in the 13th Century the Basques Were Already Negotiating Their Political Circumstances in a Way that Was Very Unique at the Time." An Interview with Jim Jacob by Robert Scarcia (2003)

Before Babel: Global Media, Ethnic Hybridity, and Enjoyment in Basque Culture by Joseba Gabilondo (1999)

From Imagination to Visualization: Protest Rituals in the Basque Country by Jesus Casquete (2003)

In Love with Puppy: Flowers, Architecture, Art, and the Art of Irony by Joseba Zulaika (2004)

Iron Fist or Kid Gloves: Repressive Targeting and Rebellious Responses by Katri Sieberg and Claudia Dahlerus (2005)

"Miracle in Bilbao": Basques in the Casino of Globalism by Joseba Zulaika (2000)

Nationalist Extremism and Outcomes of State Policies in the Basque Country, 1979-2001 by Enric Martínez-Herrera (2002)

Panorama of the Basque Country and Its Competence for Self-Government by Mikel Gómez-Uranga and Goio Etxebarria (2000)

Radical Flank Effects: The Effect of Radical-Moderate Splits in Regional Nationalist Movements by Devashree Gupta (2002)

The Basque Conflict Globally Speaking: Material Culture, Media and Basque Identity in the Wider World by J. P. Linstroth (2002)

The Anthropologist as Terrorist by Joseba Zulaika (1995)

The Idaho Memorial 114 by Gloria Pilar Totoricagüena (2003)

Tropics of Terror: From Guernica's "Natives" to Global "Terrorists" by Joseba Zulaika (1998)

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Unmask the Basques by Mark Kurlansky (2003)

Tenacity in Religion, Myth, and Folklore: The Neolithic Goddess of Old Europe Preserved in a Non-Indo-European Setting by Michael Everson (1989)

Visionaries: The Spanish Republic and the Reign of Christ by William A. Christian, Jr. (1996)

Urban Areas
McGuggenisation? National Identity and Globalisation in the Basque Country by Donald McNeill (2000)

Reflecting Basqueness: Bilbao from Mausoleum to Museum by Nerea Arruti (2004)

The Museum as a Site of Contest: The Bilbao Guggenheim by Jeremy MacClancy (1997)

Tough Beauty: Bilbao as Ruin, Architecture and Allegory by Joseba Zulaika (2001)

Uneven Redevelopment: New Urban Policies and Socio-Spatial Fragmentation in Metropolitan Bilbao by Arantxa Rodriguez, Elena Martinez, and Galder Guenaga (2001)

If there is an article that you would like to see added here, please send me its web address.

Compiled by: Steve Froemming

Last update: April 22, 2008

Links last checked: April 1, 2008