Culture and Society in the Andes:

An Online Reader

This page brings together over 250 articles on Andean society and culture that are currently available in English on the Internet. A separate list of articles available in Spanish, complete bibliographic information for the articles, and other useful websites on the Andes can be accessed by clicking the links below.

Articles in Spanish Bibliographic Information on the Articles Other Websites on the Andes

Agriculture, Pastoralism, and Ecology Education Literature and Literary Analysis
Anthropological Ethics, Practice, and Theory Ethnicity Migration and Transnationalism
Archaeology and Ethnohistory Gender Politics and Law
Art, Music, and Textiles Health Religion, Ritual, and Worldview
Colonial to 19th Century History Language and Communication Tourism
Economics and Development Linguistics (Descriptive & Historical)
 Urban Areas and Urbanization

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Agriculture, Pastoralism, and Ecology
Accessing Seed through Sharecropping: A Risk-Sharing Strategy for Andean Farmers by Erin Godtland, Elisabeth Sadoulet, Alain de Janvry, and Rinku Murgai (2001) 

Agroecosystems Management, Social Practices and Health: A Case Study on Pesticide Use and Gender in the Ecuadorian Highlands by Verónica Mera-Orcés (2000)

Andean Agriculture. In Neglected Crops 1492 from a Different Perspective by J. E. Hernández Bermejo and J. León, eds. (1994)

Andean Culture and Sustainable Human Development in the Andes by Arrufo Alcantara Hernandez (2002)

Andean Culture, Peasant Communities, and Indigenous Identity by Paul H. Gelles (2002)

Andean Grains and Legumes by A. Mujica (1994)

Andean Roots and Tubers: Ahipa, Arracacha, Maca, Yacon; Promoting the Conservation and Use of Underutilized and Neglected Crops by M. Hermann and J. Heller, eds. (1997)

Andean Tubers by C. Arbizu and M. Tapia (1994)

Are Poor Farmers to Blame for Environmental Degradation? Results from the Peruvian Altiplano by Scott M. Swinton and Roberto Quiroz (2000)

Birds of Peru by PromPerú

Coca and Agriculture in Cochabamba, Bolivia: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives by Robert H. Jackson (1998)

Collective Action, Property Relations and Natural Resource Management: Comparative Study between Two Peruvian and Two Nepalese Villages by Henkjan Laats (1998)

Comedy and Tragedy in the Andean Commons by Paul Trawick (2002)

Coping and Adapting to Increased Climate Variability in the Andes by Corinne Valdivia and Roberto Quiroz (2003)

Dam the Water: The Ecology and Political Economy of Irrigation in the Ayacucho Valley, Peru by William P. Mitchell (1994)

Endemic Birds of Peru by PromPerú

Ethnoclimatology in the Andes: A Cross-Disciplinary Study Uncovers a Scientific Basis for the Scheme Andean Potato Farmers Traditionally Use to Predict the Coming Rains by Benjamin S. Orlove, John C. H. Chiang, and Mark A. Cane (2002)

Evolution and Origin of the Domestic Camelid by Jane C. Wheeler (2003)

Fiesta for Six: One Guinea Pig and We'll All Be Full by Robert Charbonneau (1988)

Forecasting Andean Rainfall and Crop Yield from the Influence of El Niño on Pleiades Visibility by Benjamin S. Orlove, John C. H. Chiang, and Mark A. Cane (2000)

Freeze-dried but Always Peeled: Anthropological Approaches to Food Processing, Preparation, and Consumption of the Andean Potato by Elayne Zorn and Leslie Sue Lieberman (2004)

Indigenous Knowledge Re-Valued in Andean Agriculture by Miguel Altieri (1996)

Indigenous People Defend United Nations "Terminator" Ban by IIED (2005)

Introduction to High Altitude Irrigation by William P. Mitchell (1994)

Irrigation and Community in the Central Peruvian Highlands by William P. Mitchell (1976)

Lameo, an Indigenous Method of Soil Conservation by Bert Boer and Ramón Castellón (1996)

Local Control of Aquatic Resources: Community and Ecology in Lake Titicaca, Peru by Dominique P. Levieil and Benjamin S. Orlove (1990)

Lost Crops of the Incas: Little Known Plants of the Andes with Promise for Worldwide Cultivation by the National Research Council (1989)

Melting Glaciers Threaten Peru by BBC News (2007)

More Social Capital, Less Erosion: Evidence from Peru's Altiplano by Scott M. Swinton (2000)

Mountain Peoples - Adaptation and Cultural Persistence for a New Century by Winifred L. Mitchell and Paul F. Brown (2002)

Nurturing the Seed in the Peruvian Andes by Tirso A. Gonzáles, Nestor Chambi, and Marcela Machaca (1998)

On Terracing the Andes by William P. Mitchell (1985)

Pathways into and out of Poverty and the Role of Livestock in the Peruvian Andes by Patricia Kristjanson, Anirudh Krishna, Maren Radeny, and Judith Kuan (2006)

Peasant Households Strategies in the Andes and Potential Users of Climate Forecasts: El Niño of 1997-1998 by Corinne Valdivia, Christian Jetté, Roberto Quiroz, Jere L. Gilles, and Susan Materer (2000)

Politics of Conservation and Consumption: The Vicuña Trade in Peru by Amy Elizabeth Cox (2003)

Poverty and Natural Resource Degradation: Agropastoralism in the Northern Coast of Peru by Abelardo Rodríguez, , Raúl Alvarez, and Margarita Uhlenbrock (2005)

Project Las Piedras: A Socio-Ecological Investigation into the Impact of Illegal Logging Activity in Las Piedras, Madre de Dios, Peru by Björn Schulte-Herbrüggen and Helfrid Rossiter (2003)

Puka Suytu versus Solanum Tuberosum: How Scientific are the Scientific Names? by Grimaldo Rengifo Vásquez (1996)

Rational Choice and Collective Action in an Andean Community by Steve Froemming (1999)

Relation between Ethnoveterinary and Western Knowledge in Family-Level Livestock Keeping (Examples from Bolivia) by Katrien van Hooft (1997)

Review of the Literature on Pastoral Economics and Marketing: South America by Carlos Andaluz Westreicher, Juan Luis Mérega, and Gabriel Palmili (2006)

Sectoral Fallowing Systems in the Central Andes by Benjamin S. Orlove and Richard Godoy (1986)

Social Adaptation to the Mountain Environment of an Andean Village by William P. Mitchell (1978)

Survival in Marginal Lands: Climate Change in the High Peruvian Andes by Inge Bolin (1999)

Synergy Between Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Conservation Science Supports Forest Preservation in Ecuador by C. Dustin Becker and Kabita Ghimire (2003)

The Cultures of the Seed in the Peruvian Andes by Tirso A. Gonzales (2000)

The Impact of Farmer-Field-Schools on Knowledge and Productivity: A Study of Potato Farmers in the Peruvian Andes by Erin Godtland, Elisabeth Sadoulet, Alain de Janvry, Rinku Murgai, and Oscar Ortiz (2003)

The Potato, Treasure of the Andes: From Agriculture to Culture by Christine Graves, ed.

Transitions in Farm Nature and Society, 1969-1990 (Chapter 3 in Changing Fortunes: Biodiversity and Peasant Livelihood in the Peruvian Andes) by Karl S. Zimmerer (1997)

Vicuña Use by Andean Communities: A Risk or an Opportunity? by Gabriela Lichtenstein and Nadine Renaudeau d'Arc

When Apus Are Losing Their White Ponchos: Environmental Dilemmas and Restoration Efforts in Peru by Inge Bolin (2001)

Anthropological Ethics, Practice, and Theory
Danger, Fulfillment, and Responsibility in a Violence-Plagued Society by Maureen Hays-Mitchell (2001)

Lines in the Water (Excerpts: "Preface" and Chapter 2 "Mountains") by Ben Orlove (2002)

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Rethinking Peruvian Studies: De-Essentializing the Andean by William W. Stein (1999)

The Myth of the Isolated Native Community: A Case Study from Peru by William P. Mitchell (1987)

The Politics and Aesthetics of Attraction in the Gran Poder Festival: Reflections on a ‘Methodology of Affect’ by Nico Tassi (2007)

Archaeology and Ethnohistory
3000 years of Pottery Production: Insights and Cautionary Tales from the Lake Titicaca Basin, Peru by Elizabeth A. Klarich and Honorato Ttacca (2006)

Agroengineering Dynamics of Post-Tiwanaku Settlements in the Otora Valley, Peru by Charles Stanish (1987)

A Measure of Loss: Prehispanic Llama and Alpaca Breeds by J. C. Wheeler, A. J. F. Russel, and H. F. Stanley (1992)

A Model of Multiethnicity: State Collapse, Competition, and Social Complexity from Tiwanaku to Chiribaya in the Osmore Valley, Perú by Bruce Owen (1993)

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An Archaeological Evaluation of an Ethnohistorical Model in Moquegua by Charles Stanish (1989)

Ancient Kings of Peru: The Reliability of the Chronicle of Fernando de Montesinos; Correlating the Dynasty Lists with Current Prehistoric Periodization in the Andes (Conclusion) by Juha Hiltunen (1995)

Ancient Machu Picchu Drainage Engineering by Kenneth R. Wright, Alfredo Valencia Zegarra, and William L. Lorah (1999)

Andean Calculators by Antonio Aimi and Nicolino De Pasquale

An Osteological Study of Nasca Trophy Heads Collected by A.L. Kroeber During the Marshall Field Expeditions to Peru by Sloan R. Williams, Kathleen Forgey, and Elizabeth A. Klarich (2001)

Archaeological Approaches to Ritual in the Andes: A Ceramic Analysis of Ceremonial Space at the Formative Period Site of Chiripa, Bolivia by Andrew P. Roddick (2002) 

Archaeological Remains of Potato and Sweet Potato in Peru by Donald Ugent and Linda W. Peterson (1988)

Archaeology, Landscapes and Dreams: Science, Sacred Offerings, and the Practice of Archaeology by Kevin Lane and Alexander Herrera (2005)

Archaeology of Formative Ecuador by J. Scott Raymond and Richard L. Burger, eds. (2003)

Architectural Sequence and Chronology at Chavin de Huantar, Peru by Silvia Rodriguez Kembel (2001)

Bone Cutting, Placement, and Cannibalism? Middle Preceramic Mortuary Patterns of Nanchoc, Northern Peru by Jack Rossen and Tom D. Dillehay (2001)

Bringing the Inca Canals Back to Life by Sally Bowen (2001)

Chavín by Richard L. Burger (1996)

Climate Variation and the Rise and Fall of an Andean Civilization by Michael W. Binford et. al. (1997)

Conclusions: Cultures of the Ecuadorian Formative in Their Andean Context by Richard L. Burger (2003)

Cosmovision and Ideology in the Pre-Hispanic Andes by Andrés Ciudad Ruiz (2004)

Cota Coca Reconnaissance Project by Gary Ziegler and Hugh Thomson (2002)

Directions In Ethnohistorical Research on the Inca State and Economy by Chris Beyers (2001)

Distant Colonies and Explosive Collapse: The Two Stages of the Tiwanaku Diaspora in the Osmore Drainage by Bruce Owen (2005)

Evaluation of Ectoparasites on the Guinea Pig Mummies of El Yaral and Moquegua Valley, in Southern Peru by Katharina Dittmar (2000)

Expression of Ideology in the Formative Period of Ecuador by Karen E. Stothert (2003)

Finders Keepers by Christopher Heaney (2006)

Fish and Mammals in the Economy of an Ancient Peruvian Kingdom by Joyce Marcus, Jeffrey D. Sommer, and Christopher P. Glew (1999)

Five Sacred Priestesses from San José de Moro: Elite Women Funerary Rituals on Peru’s Northern Coast by Luis Jaime Castillo Butters (2006)

Form and Meaning in Chavin Art by John Rowe (2000)

From Internal to Embedded Migration in the Titicaca Basin Formative by Matt Bandy (2003)

From Pots to People (Chapter 1 of "The Nazca") by Helaine Silverman and Donald Proulx (2002)

From Sequence to Social Organization: Tiwanaku Multicomponent Society in Moquegua, Perú by Bruce Owen (2001)

From the Mundane to the Monumental: Defining Early Leadership Strategies at Late Formative Pukara, Peru by Elizabeth A. Klarich (2005)

Funerary Regalia and Institutions of Leadership in Paracas and Topará by Ann H. Peters (2000)

General Trends in the Development of the Chiribaya Culture, South-Coastal Peru by David Jessup (2001)

Hard Times in Ecuador: Inka Troubles at Pambamarca by Samuel V. Connell et. al. (2003)

High-Altitude Ceremonial Sites in the Peruvian Andes: GIS Modeling by Adina Racoviteanu (n.d.)

Inca Culture at the Time of the Spanish Conquest by John Rowe (1946)

Inca Land: Explorations in the Highlands of Peru by Hiram Bingham (1922)

Interpreting Conflict in the Ancient Andes: Implications for the Archaeology of Warfare by Elizabeth Arkush and Charles Stanish (2005)

Introduction (Chapter 1 of "The Incas") by Terence N. D'Altroy (2002)

Introduction (Chapter 1 of "Inca Myths") by Gary Urton (1999)

Introduction to the Inca (Introduction to "Ancient Cuzco: Heartland of the Inca" by Brian S. Bauer (2004)

Late Intermediate Period Political Economy and Household Organization at Jachakala, Bolivia by Christine D. Beaule (2002)

"Lost City" Yielding Its Secrets by John Noble Wilford (2003)

Loving it to Death: The Gran Pajatén Predicament by Warren B. Church (1999)

Machu Picchu's Observatory: The Re-Discovery of Llactapata and its Sun-Temple by J. McKim Malville, Hugh Thomson, and Gary Ziegler (2004)

Making the Dead Beautiful: Mummies as Art by Bernardo T. Arriaza et. al. (1998)

Memory, Writing, and Record Keeping in the Inka Empire (Chapter 1 of Signs of the Inka Khipu: Binary Coding in the Andean Knotted-String Records) by Gary Urton (2003)

Mobility and Exchange in the Andean Preceramic: Insights from Obsidian Studies by Nicholas Tripcevich (2006)

Moche Sex Pots: Reproduction and Temporality in Ancient South America by Mary Weismantel (2004)

Monuments, Masonry, and Magic in Tahuantinsuyu by Astrid Whidden (1997)

More Questions than Answers (Chapter 1 in "Sex, Death, and Sacrifice in Moche Religion and Visual Culture" by Steve Bourget (1996)

Multisystemic Tuberculosis in a Pre-Columbian Peruvian Mummy: Four Diagnostic Levels, and a Paleoepidemiological Hypothesis by Guido P. Lombardi and Uriel García Cáceres (2000)

Neo-Environmental Determinism and Agrarian Collapse in Andean Prehistory by Clark L. Erickson (1999)

Nonmarket Imperialism in a Prehispanic Context: The Inca Occupation of the Titicaca Basin by Charles Stanish (1997)

Occupation and Offerings: Elite Household Organization at Pukara, Lake Titicaca Basin, Peru (200 BC- AD 200) by Elizabeth A. Klarich (2002)

On the Astronomical Content of the Sacred Landscape of Cusco in Inka Times by Giulio Magli (n.d.)

On the Role of Creation and Origin Myths in the Development of Inca State and Religion by Tarmo Kulmar (1999)

Paleoclimatic and Material Cultural Perspective on the Formative Period of Northern Chile by Luz M. Ramírez de Bryson, Robert U. Bryson, and Reid A. Bryson (2001)

Paleonthological Analysis of Sacrificial Victims at the Pyramid of the Moon, Moche River Valley, Northern Peru by John W. Verano (2000)

Peruvian Whistling Bottles by Steven Garrett and Daniel K. Stat (1977)

Pilgrimage and Ritual Movements in Cusco and the Inca Empire by R. Tom Zuidema

Population and History in the Ancient Titicaca Basin by Matthew S. Bandy (2001)

Preface (In Narrative Threads: Accounting and Recounting in Andean Khipu) by Jeffrey Quilter (2002)

Prehistoric Ethnicity and Status Based on Textile Evidence from Arica, Chile by Vicki Cassman (2000)

Pre-Hispanic Peru by Luis Guillermo Lumbreras (2004)

Pre-Hispanic Pottery: Form, Function and Meaning by Emma Sánchez Montañés (2004)

Production and Exchange of Obsidian from the Colca Valley, Arequipa Perú by Nicholas Tripcevich (2006)

Productivity and Labor Scheduling Aspects of Titicaca Basin Raised Field Agriculture by Matthew S. Bandy (1999)

Qawranakasax Waljawa: Motivos de Camélidos en el Espacio y Tiempo Andino by Elizabeth A. Klarich and Mark S. Aldenderfer 2001)

Quarries, Caravans, and Routes to Complexity: Prehispanic Obsidian in the South-Central Andes by Nicholas Tripcevich (2007)
Raised Beds and Waru Waru Cultivation by UNEP (1997)

Raised Field Agriculture in the Lake Titicaca Basin: Putting Ancient Agriculture Back to Work by Clark L. Erickson (1988)

Rehabilitation of pre-Hispanic Terrace in the Peruvian Andes by Abelardo Rodríguez and Thomas Nickalls (2002)

Ritual Architecture and Monumental Spaces as Reflections of Formative Period Leadership Strategies in the Lake Titicaca Basin, Peru by Elizabeth A. Klarich (2002)

Totalitarianism and the Role of Religion in the Inca State by Tarmo Kulmar (2003)

The Burial Theme in Moche Iconography by Christopher B. Donnan and Donna McClelland (1979)

The Character of Inca and Andean Agriculture by John Earls (1998)

The Huarochirí Manuscript (Introduction to "The Huarochirí Manuscript: A Testament of Ancient and Colonial Andean Religion") by Frank Salomon (1991)

The Hidden Gods of Chiuchiu by Maarten van Hoek (2001)

The Hydraulic Hypothesis Revisited: A Theoretical Perspective on Lake Titicaca Basin Raised Field Agriculture by Charles Stanish (1994)

The Ica Stones and Dr. Javier Cabrera by Sara Ross (2007)

The 'Mysterious' Nazca Lines by Emma Johnson (2007)

The Peopling of the Arica Coast during the Preceramic: A Preliminary View by Bernardo T. Arriaza, Vivien G. Standen, Eliana Belmonte, et. al. (2001)

The Social Embeddedness of Southern Titicaca Basin Raised Field Agriculture by Matthew S. Bandy (2000)

Tradition and Innovation in the Art of Ancient Peru by Cristina Vidal Lorenzo (2004)

Unkunakuchkan and Wailis: An Archaeolinguistic Study of Two Andean Radicals by Karen Lizárraga (n.d.)

Warfare and Engineering, Ostentation and Social Status in the Late Intermediate Period Osmore Drainage by Bruce Owen (1995)

Art, Music, and Textiles
Center for Traditional Textiles of Cusco by Elizabeth Conrad VanBuskirk (2001)

Preserving Andean Weaving: The Center for Traditional Textiles of Cusco by Elizabeth Conrad VanBuskirk (1999)

Profiting From Ponchos by Edwin Koopman (2002)

Ringing Rocks and Roosters: Communicating with the Landscape in the Bolivian Andes by Henry Stobart (2008)

The Andean Anacrusis? Rhythmic Structure and Perception in Easter Songs of Northern Potosí, Bolivia by Henry Stobart and Ian Cross (2000)

The Charango by Luis Rumbaut (1999)

The Chinchero Center for Traditional Culture by Chris Franquemont (1982)

The Cultural Significance of Andean Cloth and Implications of Its Decline by Elayne Zorn and Juan Quispe (2004 )

The Fabric of Life: Repatriating the Sacred Coroma Textiles by Susan Lobo (1991)

The Peruvian Cajón by Carlos Giménez (1999)

Tradition and Entrepreneurship: Popular Arts and Crafts from Peru by Interntional Development Bank Cultural Center (2004)

Colonial to 19th Century History
After the Nueva Historia: Recent Trends in Peruvian Historiography by Paulo Drinot (2000)

Case of Mistaken Identity! Leprosy, Measles, or Smallpox? Old World Names for a New World Disease by James B. Kiracofe (2004)

Colloquiri's Dam: The Colonial Re-Voicing of an Appeal to the Archaic by Frank Salomon (1998)1


Dead Bones Dancing: The Taki Onqoy, Archaism, and Crisis In Sixteenth Century Peru by Sändra Lee Allen Henson (2002)

El Primer Nueva Corónica y Buen Gobierno by Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala (1614)

Family Values in Seventeenth-Century Peru by Irene Silverblatt (1998)1


Imagining Development: Economic Ideas in Peru's "Fictitious Prosperity" of Guano, 1840-1880 by Paul Gootenberg (1993)

Indigenous and Viceroyal Peru (Exhibition Catalog) by the Sociedad Estatal para la Acción Cultural Exterior - Spain (2004)

Let Me See! Reading Is for Them: Colonial Andean Images and Objects "Como Es Costumbre Tener los Caciques Señores" by Tom Cummins (1998)1


Litigation over the Rights of "Natural Lords" in Early Colonial Courts in the Andes by John V. Murra (1998)1


Non-Imperial Toponymic Element Distribution in the Ecuadorian Highlands by Jim Belote and Linda Belote (1999)

Notaries, Truth, and Consequences by Kathryn Burns (2004)

Pachacamac and the Señor de Milagros by María Rostworowski (1998)1


Paying the Price of Freedom: Family and Labor Among Lima's Slaves, 1800-1854 by Christine Hunefeldt (1994)

Pictographs in the Andes by William P. Mitchell (1996)

Regional Research on the Inca by Charles Stanish (2001)

Sculpture, Altarpieces and Imagery in the Viceroyalty by Luis Eduardo Wuffarden (2004)

The Fabrication of Andean Particularism by Carlos Espinosa Fernández de Córdoba (1989)

The History of the Conquest Of Peru by William H. Prescott (1847)

The Incas and Rome by Sabine MacCormack (2003)

The Origins of the State in South America by Charles Stanish (2001)

The Viceroyalty Painting Schools by Luis Eduardo Wuffarden (2004)

The Ways of Art by Rafael López Guzmán (2004)

Time, Space, and Ritual Action: The Inka and Christian Calendars in Early Colonial Peru by Sabine MacCormack (1998)1

To Kill a Cacique: Caciques, Communities, State Formation, Chimborazo, Ecuador, 1830-1845 by Aleeze Sattar (2000)

Economics and Development
An Examination of Barter and Cash Sale in Lake Titicaca by Benjamin S. Orlove (1986)

A Personal and Intellectual Odyssey (Introduction to "Voices from the Global Margin: Confronting Poverty and Inventing New Lives in the Andes") by William P. Mitchell (2006)

An Untapped Potential for Cooperation in Science and Technology for Mountain Conservation and Sustainable Development: The Case of the Andes and the Himalayas by Alejandro Camino (2002)

Artisanal and Informal Mining in Peru by Juana R. Kuramoto (2002)

Barter Markets: Sustaining People and Nature in the Andes by Neus Martí Sanz

Benefiting Local Populations? Communal Reserves in Peru by Helen Newing and Lissie Wahl (2004)

Coca Yes, Cocaine No? Legal Options for the Coca Leaf by the Transnational Institute (2006)

Cut-Flower Exports, Female Labor, and Community Participation in Highland Ecuador by Tanya Korovkin (2003)

Endogeneity of Land Titling and Farm Investments: Evidence from the Peruvian Andes by John Antle, David Yanggen, Roberto Valdivia, and Charles Crissman (2003)

Green Ponchos and Inca Gold: Natural Links to the Past in Cajamarca, Peru by Ross Mitchell

International NGOs and Sustainable Agricultural Development: A Methodological Analysis with Examples from Highland Ecuador by James R. Keese (2001)

Jack of All Plants: Bolivians Use Coca to Make Shampoo, Toothpaste - and a Political Career by Daniel Kurtz-Phelan (2006)

La Ruta Cana: The Political Economy of Cane-Alcohol Production in Northwestern Ecuador by Gregory Guest (1997)

Lessons from Twenty Years of Research Support in the Central Andes by Edward J. Weber and Martín Mujica (2001)

Livelihood Strategies and Development Interventions in the Southern Andes of Bolivia: Contrasting Views on Development by E.B. Zoomers (2001)

Llamas, Weavings, and Organic Chocolate: Multicultural Grassroots Development in the Andes and Amazon of Bolivia (Excerpts, Chapters 1-4) by Kevin Healy (2001)

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Local Institutions, Poverty and Household Welfare in Bolivia by Christiaan Grootaert and Deepa Narayan (2001)

Peru: Rural Development in the Crossfire: The Role of Grassroots Support Organizations in Situations of Political Violence in Peru by Michael L. Smith (1991)

Poverty Studies in Peru: Toward a More Inclusive Study of Exclusion by Teófilo Altamirano et. al. (2003)

Productive Strategies for Poor Rural Households to Participate Successfully in Global Economic Processes: Country Report for Bolivia by Rommy Viscarra and Jonathan Rushton (2006)

Productivity to Reduce Poverty: The Study of a Micro Level Institution in Peru by Pierre-Olivier Pineau (2004)

Reciprocity for Life Security by Freddy Delgado, Juan San Martin, and Domingo Torrico (1998)

Rise, Fall, and Semiperipheral Development in the Andean World System by Darrell La Lone (2000)

Rotative Rank Hierarchy and Recursive Organization: The Andean Peasant Community as a Viable System by John Earls

Social Protection Policy and Practice in Bolivia: Its Implications for Bolivia's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) by Caroline Moser with Oscar Antezana (2001)

Some are More Equal than Others: Labor Supply, Reciprocity, and Redistribution in the Andes by William P. Mitchell (1991)

Swallowing their Pride: Indigenous and Industrial Beer in Peru and Bolivia by Benjamin S. Orlove and Ella Schmidt (1995)

The Rise and Demise of Coca and Cocaine: As Licit Global 'Commodity Chains', 1860-1950 by Paul Gootenburg

The Internet, Inequality and Exclusion in Peru: the Social Impact of the Cabinas Públicas by Victoria Holmes (2001)

The Productivity of Social Capital: An Econometric Analysis of 49 Peruvian Highland Communities by Henrik Wiig (2003)

Value and Economic Culture Among the Peasant Gold Miners of the Cuyo Cuyo District (Northern Puno, Peru) by Jorge Recharte (1993)

Water Law and Indigenous Rights in the Andes by Rutgerd Boelens and Hugo de Vos (2006)

Who Participates? The Supply of Volunteer Labor and the Distribution of Government Programs in Rural Peru by Norbert R. Schady (2001)

An Experience for Learning Andean Biodiversity Contents Included on the Elementary School Curriculum by Juan Diego López-Giraldo et. al. (2001)

Growing Up in a Culture of Respect: Child Rearing in Highland Peru (Preface and Introduction to the Book) by Inge Bolin (2006)

One Laptop per Child Peru/Arahuay by OLPC (2007)

Quechua Children's Theory of Mind by Penelope G. McCormick and David R. Olson (1991)

When Access Is Not Enough: Educational Exclusion of Rural Girls in Peru by Patricia Ames (2005)

A Liberalism of Fear: Imagining Indigenous Subjects in Postcolonial Ecuador, 1895-1950 by Mercedes Prieto (2003)

Andean Lives: Gregorio Condori Mamani and Asunta Quispe Huamán (Introduction and Excerpts) by Ricardo Valderrama Fernández and Carmen Escalante Gutiérrez, eds. (1996)

Broker Fixed: The Racialized State and the Subjugation of Indigenous Populations in the Andes by Arthur Scarritt
Class and Ethnicity in Rural Movements in Cayambe, Ecuador by Marc Becker (1997)

Development With Identity: The Spatial Needs Identification Study and Indigenous Land Titling in Bolivia by Jonathan Padwe (2001)

Digitizing Indigenous Sounds: Cultural Activists and Local Music in the Age of Memorex by Bartholomew Dean (2001)

Down to Earth: Race and Substance in the Andes by Benjamin S. Orlove (1998)

Ethnic Identity and Support for Indígena Demands in Ecuador: Report from a Preliminary Study by Kenneth J. Mijeski and Scott H. Beck (1997)

From "Indios Miserables" to "Nacionalidades Indigenas": Dicourse and the Construction of Ethnic Identity in Andean Ecuador by Victoria Gomez De La Torre (2004)
Indigenismo and Indian Movements in Twentieth-Century Ecuador by Marc Becker (1995)

Indigenous Mestizos: The Politics of Race and Culture in Cuzco, Peru, 1919-1991 by Marisol De La Cadena (2000)

Indigenous Nationalities in Ecuadorian Marxist Thought by Marc Becker (2008)

Pacha and Verticality: Reasserting Ethnic Identity, Community, and Place in the Ecuadorean Andes by Marcelo Cruz (1997)

Putting Race in Its Place: Order in Colonial and Postcolonial Peruvian Geography by Benjamin S. Orlove (1993)

Race, Gender, and Modernity in the Bolivian Andes (Introduction to "Gender and Modernity in Andean Bolivia") by Marcia Stephenson (1999)

State of Discord: Institutionalized Racism in Indigenous Latin America by Arthur Scarritt

The Street Signs of Downtown Lima: Memory and Identity in Peru by William W. Stein (2003)

Three Experiences of Culture Contact: Nahua, Maya, and Quechua by James Lockhart (1998)1

Trials of Nation Making: Liberalism, Race, and Ethnicity in the Andes, 1810-1910 (Chapter 1: Introduction) by Brooke Larson (2004)
Uchumataqu: Research in Progress on the Bolivian Altiplano by Pieter Muysken (2002)

Uru Life More than a Tourist Attraction by Tara Tidwell (2001)

Alone You Are Nobody, Together We Float: The Manuela Ramos Movement by Debbie Rogow (2001)

Andean Cosmology and the Making of Men by Carolyn Dean (2001)2

Cities of Women by Mary Weismantel (1999)

Citizens, Indians and Women: The Politics of Exclusion in Ecuador by Marc Becker (1999)

False Borders, Embroidered Lives (Introduction to "Gender and the Boundaries of Dress in Contemporary Peru") by Blenda Femenías (2005)

Fuel Availability, Nutrition, and Women's Work in Highland Peru: Three Case Studies from Contrasting Andean Communities by Sarah Lund Skar (1982)

Gender and Agricultural Commercialization in Ecuador and Guatamala by Sarah Hamilton, Linda Asturias, and Brenda Tevalán (2001)

Genders and Generations in Shanty Community Development, Lima, Perú by Jeanine Anderson (2000)

Field Knots and Ceramic Beaus: Interpreting Gender in the Peruvian Early Intermediate Period by Joan M. Gero (2001)2

From Unripe to Petrified: The Feminine Symbolic in Andean Gender Schema by Billie Jean Isbell (1992)

Nothing Stays the Same: One City, Two Women (Preface to "Women's Lives in Colonial Quito: Gender, Law, and Economy in Spanish America") by Kimberly Gauderman (2003)

Social Network Analysis of Women, Resources, and Commnity in Angla, Ecuador by Andrea M. Durham (2004)

Stealing a Bride: Marriage Customs, Gender Roles, and Fertility Transition in Two Peasant Comunities in Bolivia by Jorge Balán (1996)

The Impact of Improved Rural Roads on Gender Relations in Peru by Ana Bravo (2002)

Transculturating Tropes of Sexuality, Tinkuy, and Third Gender in the Andes (Introduction to "Decolonizing the Sodomite: Queer Tropes of Sexuality in Colonial Andean Culture") by Michael J. Horswell (2006)

Women Farmers and Andean Seeds by Mario E. Tapia and Ana De la Torre (1998)

A Medicine Hunter on a Remote Path to Cures by Andrew Downie (2008)

Andean, Tibetan, and Ethiopian Patterns of Adaptation to High-Altitude Hypoxia by Cynthia M. Beall (2006)

Ayahuasca: Shamanism Shared Across Cultures by Luis Eduardo Luna (2003)

Bartonellosis by John S. Marr (2000)

Coconuts and the Community - Malaria Control in Peru by International Development Research Centre (1998)

Culturally Appropriate Information, Education and Communication Strategies for Improving Adolescent Reproductive Health in Cusco, Peru by Marco Flórez-Aréstegui Cornejo and Rosalinda Barreto Silva (2004)

Delivering Health Care in the Andes by Deborah Bender (1984)

Diet of Quechua Indians Living at High Altitude by R. B. Mazess and P. T. Baker (1964)
Genetic Approaches to Understanding Human Adaptation to Altitude in the Andes by J. L. Rupert and P. W. Hochachka (2001)

Globalization and Local Response to Epidemiological Overlap in 21st Century Ecuador by William F. Waters (2006)
Kallawayas: The Nomadic Medicine Men of Bolivia by Debbie K. Becht (1998)

Native Cures for Body and Spirit by Juan San Martín, Dora Ponce and Gilberto Lisperguer (2000)

The Manta Pouch: A Regulatory System for Peruvian Infants at High Altitude by Edward Z. Tronick, Randall Brooke Thomas, and Magali Daltabuit G. (n.d.)

Traditional Medicinal Plant Use in Northern Peru: Tracking Two Thousand Years of Healing Culture by Rainer W. Bussmann and Douglas Sharon (2006)

Traditional Use of the Andean Flicker (Colaptes rupicola) as a Galactagogue in the Peruvian Andes by Steve Froemming (2006)

Viagra Natural by Brendan I. Koerner (2005)

Work, Reproduction, and Health in Two Andean Communities (Department of Puno, Peru) by Anne Larme (1993)


Language and Communication
Against the State and Against the Grass Roots: the Discourse of the Academia Mayor de la Lengua Quechua by Tim Marr (n.d.)

A Nation Surrounded by Bruce Mannheim (1998)1

Anthropology and the Philosophy of Arithmetic (Chapter 1 in The Social Life of Numbers: A Quechua Ontology of Numbers and Philosophy of Arithmetic by Gary Urton (1997)

Authenticity and Unification in Quechua Language Planning. Language, Culture and Curriculum by Nancy Hornberger and Kendall King (1998)

Aymara and Quechua: Languages in Contact by M. J. Hardman (1985)

Can Quechua Survive? by Anna Saroli (2001)

Contact-Induced Language Change in Lima, Peru: The Case of Clitic Pronouns by Carol A. Klee and Rocío Caravedo (2005)

Corpus Planning for the Southern Peruvian Quechua Language by Serafin M.Coronel-Molina (1996)


Functional Domains of the Quechua Language in Peru: Issues of Status Planning by Serafín M. Coronel-Molina (1999)

Language Ideologies and Heritage Language Education by Kendall A. King (1999)

Language Policy: Status Planning for the Quechua Language in Peru by Serafín M. Coronel-Molina (1997)


Language Revitalisation in the Andes: Can the Schools Reverse Language Shift? by Nancy H. Hornberger and Kendall A. King (1996)

Language Revitalization Processes and Prospects: Quichua in the Ecuadorian Andes by Kendall A. King (1998)

Radio Chaguarurco: Now You’re Not Alone by Bruce Girard (2003)

Should Quechua Be Used in Puno's Rural Schools? by Nancy Hornberger (1986)

Standardization in Andean Languages by Rodolfo Cerron-Palomino (1992)

The Andean Uru-Chipaya Languages (State of Research 2002) by Sabine Dedenbach-Salazar Sáenz, Denise Arnold, and Juan de Dios Yapita (2002)

The Dream of a Perfect Language, Part IV by Umberto Eco (1996)

Linguistics (Descriptive and Historical)
An OT Account of  Laryngealization in Cuzco Quechua by Steve Parker (1997)

Cuzco Quechua Quantifiers by Martina Faller and Rachel Hastings (n.d.)

Metáforas del Tiempo en el Quechua by Martina Faller and Mario Cúellar (2003)

On the Phonetic Duration of Huariapano Rhymes by Steve Parker (1998)

Propositional- and Illocutionary-Level Evidentiality in Cuzco Quechua by Martina Faller (2003)

Semantics and Pragmatics of Evidentials in Cuzco Quechua by Martina Faller (2002)

The Binding Properties of Quechua Suffixes by David Weber (1993)

The Cusco Quechua Reportative Evidential and Rhetorical Relations by Martina Faller (2007)

The Direction of Inflection: Downtrends and Uptrends in Peruvian Spanish Broad Focus Declaratives by Erin O'Rourke (2006)

The Ingredients of Reciprocity in Cuzco Quechua by Martina Faller (2007)

The Problem of Quechua -nka: Distributivity vs. Group Forming by Martina Faller (2001)

The Semantics of Discontinuous Noun Phrases in Quechua by Rachel Hastings (2003)

Unstressed Vowel Reduction in Andean Spanish by Ann Marie Delforge (2008)

Literature and Literary Analysis
In Search of an Inca by Luis Nieto (2002)

The Pongo's Dream by José María Arguedas (1995)

The Potbellied Virgin by Alicia Yánez Cossío (2006)

Migration and Transnationalism
Bolivia: An Assessment of the Labour Migration Situation - The Case of Female Labour Migrants by Ivonne Farah and Carmen Sanchez (1992)

Callos and Guatitas: Radio and Migration in Ecuador and Spain by Luis Dávila and José Manuel López (2003)

Enframing Peruvianness?: Notes on the Poetics and Pragmatics of Public Performance among Peruvian Migrants in New Jersey by Ulla Dalum Berg (2003)

Globalization and Otavalo Life (Chapter 1 of Andean Entrepreneurs: Otavalo Merchants and Musicians in the Global Arena) by Lynn A. Meisch (2002)

Inside the Hispanic Melting Pot: Negotiating National and Multicultural Identities among Peruvians in the United States by Karsten Paerregaard (2005)

Migration and Resource Access: View from a Quechua Barrio by Robyn Eversole (2005)

Migration in the Peru/Ecuador Boundary Region by Vanessa Gil, Huston J. Gibson and C. W. Minkel (2003)

Peruvian Families between Peru and Spain by Angeles Escrivá (2003)

Rural-Urban Migration In Bolivia: An Escape Boat? by Maria Tannuri-Pianto, Donald Pianto, and Omar Arias (2004)

Viviendo en la Sombra: The Immigration of Peruvian Professionals to South Florida by Elena Sabogal (2005)

Politics and Law
Barricades and Ballots: Ecuador's Indians and the Pachakutik Political Movement by Scott H. Beck and Kenneth J. Mijeski (2001)

Bolivia, A Country Study by Rex A. Hudson and Dennis M. Hanratty (1989)

Cash Cows and Fighting Bulls: Redefining Identity, Maintaining Control in Southwestern Peru by Thomas Love (1998)

Collective Action, Conflict and Ethnicity in Peru by Ismael Muñoz, Maritza Paredes and Rosemary Thorp (2006)

Customary Law and the Nationalist Project in Spain and Peru by David Guillet (2005)

Dangerous Liaisons: Center-Left Governments and the Grassroots by Raúl Zibechi (2004)

Democracy, Modernity and the Public Sphere: Latin American Perspectives on North American Models by David Nugent (1999)

Ecuador, A Country Study by Dennis M. Hanratty (1989)

Ecuadors' Past Offers Direction for the Future by Theodore Macdonald (2004)

"How We Learned to Kill Our Brother"?: Memory, Morality and Reconciliation in Peru by Kimberly Theidon (2000)

Indigenous Communists and Urban Intellectuals in Cayambe, Ecuador (1926-1944) by Marc Becker (2004)

Indigenous People and Political Transnationalism: Globalization from Below Meets Globalization from Above? by Sarah Radcliffe, Nina Laurie, and Robert Andolina (2002)

Indigenous People, Law, and Politics in Peru by Joanna Drzewieniecki (1995)

Mapping Reeds and Reading Maps: the Politics of Representation in Lake Titicaca by Benjamin S. Orlove (1991)

Meat and Strength: the Moral Economy of a Chilean Food Riot by Benjamin S. Orlove (1997)

Nonviolent Insurrection in Ecuador: The 1944 Glorious May Revolution by Marc Becker (2003)

Peasant Identity, Worker Identity: Conflicting Modes of Rural Consciousness in Highland Ecuador by Marc Becker (1997)

Peru: A Country Study by Rex A. Hudson, ed. (1992)

Popular Participation in Bolivia, Colombia and Peru: A Synthesis of Three Studies by Örjan Bartholdson, Anders Rudqvist, and Charlotta Widmark (2002)

Pitfalls of Power to the People: Decentralization, Local Government Performance, and System Support in Bolivia by Jonathan T. Hiskey and Mitchell A. Seligson (2003)

Profile of Internal Displacement: Peru by the Norwegian Refugee Council (2001)

Public Secrets from Peru by Billie Jean Isbell (2003)

Reading the City as (Social) Movement: El Alto, Bolivia, October 2003 by Juan Manuel Arbona (2005)

Rondas Campesinas in the Peruvian Civil War: Peasant Self-Defence Organizations in Ayacucho by Mario Fumerton (2000)

Shooting Up: The Impact of the Production and Trafficking of Illicit Substances on Militarized Conflicts by Vanda Felbab-Brown (2004)

Terror and the Privatized State: A Peruvian Parable by Deborah Poole and Gerardo Rénique (2003)

The Creation of Indigenous Territories in Bolivia by Jonathan Padwe (n.d.)

The Ethnography of Maps: The Cultural and Social Contexts of Cartographic Representation in Peru by Benjamin S. Orlove (1993)

"The Eye that Cries": The Politics of Representing Victims in Contemporary Peru by Katherine Hite (2007) 

The Future of Culture and Rights for Bolivia's Indigenous Movements by Robert Albro (2005)

The Impact of an Indigenous Counterpublic Sphere on the Practice of Democracy: The Taller de Historia Oral Andina in Bolivia by Marcia Stephenson (2000)

The Status of Traditional Indian Justice by Agustin Grijalva

Tradition and Conflict in the Organization of Rural Space in the Andes by Arrufo Alcantara Hernandez (2002)

War and Cultural Studies: Reflections on Recent Work in Peru and Argentina by William Rowe (1992)

Weak Weapons, Strong Weapons? Hidden Resistance and Political Protest in Rural Ecuador by Tanya Korovkin (1999)

Religion, Ritual, and Worldview
Andean Epistemology: The Nature of Love, Wisdom, and Environmental Concern by Oakley E. Gordon (2001)

Andean Nutrition, Exchange, and Ritual by Joseph W. Bastien (1998)

An Environmental Epistemology of the Andean People of Peru by Oakley E. Gordon (2003)

Ausangate by Andrea Heckman (2006)

Chayraq! by Carlos Iván Degregori (1995)

Coca and Andean Culture - The New Dangers of an Old Debate by Paul H. Gelles (1985)

Coca and the Mountain: Observations into the Worldview of the Quechua of Panao by Terry P. Smith (1999)

Deviant Religion and Cultural Evolution: The Aymara Case by Ted C. Lewellen (1979)

In the Footsteps of the Lord of Miracles: The Expatriation of Religious Icons in the Peruvian Diaspora by Karsten Paerregaard

Introduction to "Rituals of Respect: The Secret of Survival in the High Peruvian Andes" by Inge Bolin (1998)

Kinship As Cosmology: Potatoes as Offspring Among the Aymara of Highland Bolivia by Denise Arnold (1987)

Mountain/Body Metaphor in the Andes by Joseph W. Bastien (1978)

Potatoes and Rituals by Gloria Miranda Zambrano (1999)

Qoyllur Rit'i, An Inca Fiesta of the Pleiades: Reflections on Time and Space in the Andean World by Robert Randall (1982)

Qoyllur Rit'i: In Search of the Lord of the Snow Star by Vicente Revilla (2001)

Research on Andean Cosmovision by Freddy Delgado and Dora Ponce (1999)

Spectacled Bear and Culture by Denis Alexander Torres

The Achkay, the Cacique and the Neighbour Oral Tradition and Talk in San Pedro de Pariarca by Rosaleen Howard-Malverde (1986)

The Creativity of the Peruvian by Juan M. Ossio A. (2004)

The Myths of Mexico and Peru by Lewis Spence (1913)

The Naturalisation of Andean Christianities by Kenneth Mills (2006)

Universals and Particulars: Themes and Persons (Chapter 1 of  On the Wings of Time) by Sabine MacCormack (2006)

An Integrative Approach to Tourism: Lessons from the Andes of Peru by Ross E. Mitchell and Paul F. J. Eagles (2001)

Community Tourism in Peru: The Island of Taquile, Lake Titicaca by Ross E. Mitchell

Learning Both Ways: Lessons from a Corporate and Community Ecotourism Collaboration by Amanda Stronza (1999)

Revealing the True Promise of Community-based Ecotourism: The Case of Posada Amazonas by Amanda Stronza (2001)

Saving Machu Picchu: Responsible Tourism Is a 3-Way Deal by Tim Leffel (2005)

The Traveler´s Guide to Festivities, Music, and Folk Art in Peru by PromPerú

Urban Areas and Urbanization
Comedores Populares: Lessons for Urban Programming from Peruvian Community Kitchens by James L. Garrett (2001)

The City of Cusco: Superimposing of Cultures by Graciela María Viñuales (2004)

1In: Native Traditions in the Postconquest World, A Symposium at Dumbarton Oaks, 2nd through 4th October 1992, Elizabeth Hill Boone and Tom Cummins, eds., Dumbarton Oaks, 1998.

2In: Gender in Pre-Hispanic America. Cecelia F. Klein, ed. Dumbarton Oaks, 2001.

Compiled by: Steve Froemming

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Last update: October 3, 2009

Links last checked: January 1, 2009